It must be mentioned that as an anti-submarine measure
the raid was only a partial success for the Germans quickly found a
way around the blocks, but as an example of derring-do it had a tonic
effect on British civilian morale.
“With our backs to the wall and believing in the justice of our
cause, each one of us must fight to the end’. This order of the
day was issued on April 12th 1918 by the British Commander, Field-Marshal
Haig. There had been a new German offensive which had opened a gap 30
miles wide in the Allied line in Flanders. Already the Germans had driven
the Allies back 40 miles at St. Quentin and in May they began a drive
for Paris. By July, the second battle of the Marne had begun. But this
was Germany’s final throw. In August, the Allies counter attacked
and the Germans crumbled. One month later Marshall Foch, in charge of
all the Allied armies, ordered a general advance and this did not stop
until, one by one, the Central Powers surrendered (first Bulgaria then
Turkey, then Austria-Hungary,) until the Germans asked for peace on
Marshal Foch received a small group of Germans at his headquarters in
the Forest of Compiegne on November 7th and told them the allied terms:
Germans to leave all occupied territory, to surrender their arms and
warships, withdraw all forces from west of the River Rhine, return Allied
prisoners and allow Allied troops to occupy German territory. The Germans
agreed and on November 11th at 5 a .m. German delegates entered a railway
coach in the Forest of Compiegne to sign the armistice. Fighting stopped
on all battle fronts at ll.00 a.m. The surrender of the German Fleet
under Admiral von Reuter took place on November 21st in the Firth of
Three special numbers commemorate these events. (Appendix
list nos. 74, 75, 76).
The first deals with the surrender of Austria and Turkey.
After the Italians (who had declared neutrality in
1914 but entered the war on the Allied side in 1915) had defeated the
Austrians at the battle of Vittorio Veneto; the Austrian General von
Weber asked the Italian Chief of Staff General Badoglio for armistice
conditions These were accepted and the armistice was signed at Padua
on November 3rd (which came into force on Nov. 4th).
The Surrender of Turkey was the result of the two victorious campaigns
in Palestine (under General Sir E.H.H. Allenby) and Mesopotamia (under
General Sir W. R. Marshall). The armistice with Turkey was signed on
October 30th and came into Operation on October 31st.
The special issue of November 9th illustrates the leading personalities
behind the armistices, the military events which led up to them, a review
of those two countries participation in the war and the aftermath of
The cover of this number has the words
‘The Armistice with Austria and Turkey’ beneath
the title frame.
It is number. 4151, vol. 15 (pages 561- 596) measures
30 X 42 cm and was priced at one shilling
The issue of November 16th dealing with the Armistice with Germany also
covers the final phase of the war from July 18th to November 11th. It
illustrates the retreat of the Germans from Valenciennes the liberation
of Belgium the freeing of Lille, the revolution in Germany, the fall
of the Kaiser and Crown Prince, the Inter-allied Conference at Versailles
Armistice Day scenes in London, Germany’s new socialist leaders
and famous men prominent throughout the war.
The cover of this issue, in red, black and White, is dominated by a
portrait of Marshal Foch Generalissimo of the Entente forces, in an
oval frame. At the bottom right in a circular frame is the portrait
of the British Commander-in-chief, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig and
at the bottom left in another circular frame is the portrait of the
Admiral of the Fleet, Sir David Beatty. Victory columns and wreaths,
frame these portraits with the words ‘The Armistice with
above the central Portrait.
This issue is number 4152, vol. 153 (pages 597- 648), measures 30 x
42 cm and cost two shillings.
The issue of November 30th is described as a record number entitled
‘The German Naval Surrender’.
It depicts how 70 ships of the German Fleet entered
British waters to come to anchor in the Firth of Forth. There were 9
battleships, 5 battle cruisers, 7 light cruisers and 49 destroyers.
There are also pictures of the British Grand Fleet at Action Stations
in case of German treachery, of the King inspecting the Fleet and the
surrender of German U- boats at Harwich.
The front cover of this magazine, in red, white and blue, has as its
focus a photograph of Admiral Sir David Beatty in profile on the bridge
of the ‘Queen Elizabeth’ looking out to sea. With him is
flag-captain Chatfield. Surrounding the square photograph frame is a
decorative scrolled border of swirling maritime and national emblems
(white ensigns, ropes, roses, thistles and shamrocks).
It is issue number 4154, vol. 153 (pages 689- 786) measures 30 x 42
cm and cost two shillings.
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